Defenses Spring 2013Fall 2012 | Fall 2013
A Study of Low Cloud Climate Feedbacks Using a Generalized Higher-Order Closure Subgrid Model
May 15, 2013
One of the biggest uncertainties in projections of future climate is whether and how low cloudiness will change and whether that change will feed back on the climate system. Much of the uncertainty revolves around the difference in scale...
Seasonal to Multi-Decadal Variability of the Width of the Tropical Belt
May 13, 2013
An expansion of the tropical belt has been extensively reported in observations, reanalyses, and climate model simulations, but there is a great deal of uncertainty in estimates of the rate of widening as different diagnostics give a wid...
Variability of Sublimation in the Upper Colorado River Basin
May 9, 2013
Snowpack stored in mountain environments is the primary source of water for the population of much of the western United States, and the loss of water through direct evaporation is a significant factor in the amount of runoff realized fr...
Latent Heating and Mixing Due to Entrainment in Tropical Deep Convection
March 26, 2013
Recent studies have noted the role of latent heating above the freezing level in reconciling Riehl and Malkus' Hot Tower Hypothesis (HTH) with evidence of diluted tropical deep convective cores. This study evaluates recent modifications ...
Kinematic Structures, Diabatic Profiles, and Precipitation Systems in West Africa During Summer 2006
March 14, 2013
West Africa is a region characterized by great spatial contrasts in temperature, precipitation, and topography, which combine to create many complex and interesting weather phenomena. In particular, the area is home to a seasonal monsoon...
Characterizing the Influence of Anthropogenic Emissions and Transport Variability on Sulfate Aerosol Concentrations at Mauna Loa Observatory
February 20, 2013
Sulfate aerosol in the atmosphere has substantial impacts on human health and environmental quality. Most notably, atmospheric sulfate has the potential to modify the earth’s climate system through both direct and indirect radiative fo...
A Lagrangian Perspective on Deep Convective Tropical Raining Systems
February 15, 2013
Deep convective precipitating systems are categorized, tracked, and analyzed in the Tropical Ocean. Precipitating systems are tracked via an algorithm applied to the high-resolution CPC Morphing technique (CMORPH) precipitation product. ...
Testing eddy compensation and eddy saturation in the Southern Ocean
February 11, 2013
The Southern Ocean (SO) is a unique and dynamic component of the climate system. Due in part to its cold temperatures and large surface area, the SO is an important region for the transfer of heat, momentum, and climatically relevant gas...
Downdraft Impacts on Tropical Convection
January 25, 2013
Downdrafts are an integral part of the convective cycle, and have been observed and documented for more than a hundred years. But many questions still surround convective downdrafts and their most difficult to observe properties. These q...